The discovery of the use of part containers in the transport 51 9 of goods since the late 1950s De considered a stone base. An angle in the evolution of the maritime transport industry “or what was called the” revolution of containment “by the result of Radical changes in the transport industry. The container loaded with goods became capable.
Move from the production site to the commodity until it reaches the consumer markets, which is called The transportation system from door to door, and a new era, the era of multiple modes of transport by road and by sea in an integrated system to check speed, safety and low cost. The means of transport have been transformed into a medium that serves the flow of goods.
Through land, air and sea. The multimodal transport system has become the backbone of operations. The flow of goods from the product red to the consumer. The multimodal transport system involves multiple activities related to efficient production, distribution and storage.
High cost and economic cost, which was organized by the convention on multimodal transport prepared by the council.
Economic and Social Council of the united nations in 1973 under the auspices of the “UNCTAD” which has been adopted at the 1980 United Nation conference in geneva with the participation of 84 States, including 51 States.
The provisions of the convention regulate the multimodal transport process based on a set of principles. Basic defines the liability regime and obligations of the carrier and the contents of the multiple transport document.
Media, reservations, claims and arbitration with the choice of shippers between transport.
Fragmented and multimodal, without prejudice to the right of each state to be at the level. National organization and control of multimodal transport operations and contractors, if the agreement is intended.
“Unifying the legal rules applicable to different modes of transport within a process. The same carriage shall be governed by one contract and under the responsibility of the editor of this contract.
Multimodal transport operator “.
Definition of multimodal transport system. Is the carriage of goods using several different modes of transport under a single document under which it undertakes. The multimodal transport operator is entirely responsible.
Characteristics of the multimodal transport system.
1. An international contract of carriage between at least two different States.
2. Contract for the carriage of goods not persons.
3. At least two different modes of transport (Land – sea – air – rail – waterways)
4. In accordance with one contract of carriage governing the entire journey between the shipper and the multimodal transport operator. The importance of the multimodal transport system. The importance of this system is in response to the global changes in the fields of economy and trade.
Manufacturing such as:
1. World economic powers that reflect the new world order and trade controls Which control global markets for production and consumption and cross-border activities And continents where global production has become international in character.2. Increased technical value of world trade and value added activities and rationalization of transport expenses and logistics cost.
3. The growing trend towards global transport integration and management complexity
Transportation and logistics costs.
4. Evolution of types, sizes, loads, c techniques of different types of transport and increasing trend towards.
- Take advantage of the principle of economies of scale with the availability of information networks that serve as backbone system performance.The ability to achieve high productivity and rapid turnover rates for transportation and ease. The smooth flow of goods and the highest level of safety and security for its services are in no uncertain terms.With the technical and technical development of human resources and the use of complex techniques in addition to application.Strict safety standards in various areas of transportation, distribution of goods and compliance with standards.Standard in these areas.The phenomenon of globalization or universality and the exchange of goods and services across borders in various areas.Humanitarian activities have led to the growth and flow of world trade through borders and between continents. Whether through production centers or consumer markets, and therefore border crossing requires transportation. Which is also penetrated by borders, which is achieved by multimodal transport under laws or treaties Agreements at the national, regional or global levels are compatible and harmonized Local differences.That the harmonization of national legislation and its compatibility with global agreements creates consistent and transparent rules. It is easy to apply by parties to commercial interests, especially in conflict situations Arbitration or arbitration or when contracting in commercial transactions.
Role of the United Nations in the development of multimodal free transport:
The United Nations organizations A concerned with multimodal d transport are IMO and UNCTAD and ASCWA system is developed by:
– Develop model rules for container definitions.
– Develop a model document for multimodal transport.
-Setting up electronic computer programs to monitor transport and communication between the parties.
-Development of statistics related to the multimodal transport system.
-Develop training programs to prepare specialized cadres.
-Issuing reports and studies on evolution of the system.
- Standardization of containers and electronic systems for tracking goods and exchanging information development in communications, multimodal transport operators and marine servicefor the development and use of a railways, combined and double-storages and warehouses for assembly and d distribution are pillars of the multimodal transport process Has become an integral part of the li integrated processes to ensure the flow and flow of raw materials and commodities. Manufactured, warehoused and distributed in the required locations at the required time and at the lowest possible cost. With maximum safety and safety and avoid the risks of transport related. Activate the multimodal transportsystem in Arab countries to activate the multimodal transportation system among the Arab countries comes primarily to stimulate trade.Inter-Arab markets and exchange of free trade area agreements and others. Activities related to production, distribution and consumption, trade and manufacturing are the drivers.The two pillars of transport movements are considered the political and economic gathering of the GCC countries.GCC agreements and trade zone agreements between some Arab countries are an example.That promising hope is the common Arab market. To start taking effective steps to implement the multimodal transport system among the Arab countries. The Arab Common Market agreement will be largely implemented, and many will be in the Arab Mashreq countries and the majority of the Maghreb countries and some southern African countries excellent elements and some good roads and railways in some of them and airports, The countries of the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula are linked to distinct networks of roads with specifications. There are other international railway lines and all have maritime ports some are distinct and the other can be described as good, especially since maritime transport is a nerve essential for multimodal transport supported by road, rail and air transport. In some places. The most important requirements of the system can be summarized in:
1. Land transport:
- Standard high-quality road networks linking production sites and seaports.
- Provides land transport fleets with standard specifications, especially containers.
- Availability of factors and elements of operation of the system from land stations, air and river Equipped with equipment for handling and storage facilities.
- The existence of information systems that cover transport the networks and provide the ability to communicate.
- Monitoring and control.
- The presence of land stations and distribution centers and assembly to facilitate the flow of logistics.
2- Railways field Availability of rail networks between ports and cargo terminals.
And in-house assembly and distribution such as (Egypt, Saudi, Arabia and Syria). Operating railway services (container trains) at controlled times Spreading its lines to cover the most important manufacturing, distribution and market areas Consumption, but the cost of construction requires investments.
3- In the field of inland water transport.
- Although limited, the processing of safe waterways for transport. Providing them with navigational aids and appropriate berths and providing fleets for transport. As in (Egypt, Iraq and Syria).
4- In the field of sea shipping.
- Modernization of marine ports and the establishment of specialized high-end cargo terminal. As centers of excellence and under the supervision and support of the State and its links to different f transport networks.
5- In the field of air transport.
- Most Arab countries maintain sophisticated networks of airports Modern and many of them equipped stations for handling goods that transport c. Are exchanged and exchanged with other modes of transport, both in the Mashreq country and abroad arab Maghreb.
- In addition to the basic components of the operation of the multimodal transport system has to be Attention to the formation of giant companies to practice multimodal transport activities between Arab countries to serve its external and inter-regional trade, which is the mission of some countries. To take effective measures to implement it either by preparing studies or allocating investments For this purpose and with the participation of both the public and government sectors and the private sector.
In addition to transport operators, the phenomenon of conflict must be addressed.
Customs legislation that limits the free flow of goods across borders and status. Rules in line with the global standard rules in this regard, including a treaty.
“FAL”, “FIATA” and others to ensure the effective operation of the system. As
The dissemination of logistics thought among the business systems and the establishment of national councils for this The purpose and application of the principles of total quality in management and operation of the most important. Trends that support the multimodal transport system.